Affiliated organization : Climate and clean air coalition (CCAC)
Type of publication : Rapport
Date of publication : 2019
*Les Wathinotes sont des extraits de publications choisies par WATHI et conformes aux documents originaux. Les rapports utilisés pour l’élaboration des Wathinotes sont sélectionnés par WATHI compte tenu de leur pertinence par rapport au contexte du pays. Toutes les Wathinotes renvoient aux publications originales et intégrales qui ne sont pas hébergées par le site de WATHI, et sont destinées à promouvoir la lecture de ces documents, fruit du travail de recherche d’universitaires et d’experts.
National Action Plan for the Reduction of Short-Lived Climate Pollutants
Understanding the challenges related to air pollution caused by economic development, Côte d’Ivoire joined several conventions and coalitions at the international level, including the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC). This awareness has also emerged at sub-regional level with the adoption in 2009 of the Abidjan Agreement, a regional framework agreement for improving air quality in West and Central Africa. In light of these commitments, Côte d’Ivoire has embarked on a major project to reduce the footprint of its economic development on its natural environment by setting a target to reduce 28% of its greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 and adopting legal instruments for implementation such as the air quality decree to control air pollution.
Emissions of short-lived climate pollutants in Côte d’Ivoire
The assessment of climate pollutants highlighted the contributions of the different sectors of activity to the emissions of particulate (BC and PM) and gaseous (NOx, CO, CO2 , SO2, CH4) pollutants at the national level. In addition to assessing the emission levels of the two short-lived climate pollutants directly emitted into the atmosphere, Methane (CH4) and Black Carbon (BC), this study also estimates the emission levels of other pollutants and thus provides a comprehensive mapping of the sources and emission levels of air pollutants in Côte d’Ivoire.
We note in general:
- a predominance of the Residential sector for emissions of particulate pollutants (BC, OC, PM 2.5);
- a predominance of the Transport sector for gaseous pollutants such as carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides (CO2, NOx).
For the two short-lived climate pollutants to be assessed in this study, the main sources of emissions are as follows:
- Black Carbon (BC): emissions come mainly from domestic fires, the burning of agricultural waste and residues and the production of charcoal;
- Methane (CH4): emissions come mainly from rice cultivation, landfills and domestic waste water, and oil and natural gas exploitation.
The analysis goes further by projecting emissions of pollutants to different planning horizons (2030 and 2040). If nothing is done, emissions of Black Carbon (BC) and Methane (CH4) in Côte d’Ivoire are projected to at least double by 2040.
Understanding the challenges related to air pollution caused by economic development, Côte d’Ivoire joined several conventions and coalitions at the international level, including the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC)
Measures to reduce SLCP and their benefits for climate and air quality
Following the identification of the main sources of emissions of short-lived climate pollutants in Côte d’Ivoire, a set of measures and actions to reduce emissions of these pollutants were reviewed with a view to identifying the most relevant ones. Overall, 16 measures, including 8 targeting sources of black carbon (BC) and another 8 targeting sources of methane (CH4), were identified and prioritized as part of the planning for actions to reduce short-lived climate pollutants. This plan identifies for each measure the assigned ambition, the level of priority and the actors involved in the implementation of these measures, each measure being supported by specific actions. These 16 measures were prioritized at the national level in consultation with key stakeholders based on their mitigation potential and feasibility in the national context.
The full implementation of the 16 SLCP reduction measures identified in Côte d’Ivoire would allow to implement them:
- Up to 59% reduction in soot carbon (BC) emissions by 2030 and more than 80% by 2040, mainly in the Residential, Waste and Wood Coal Production sectors;
- Up to 34% reduction in methane (CH4) emissions by 2030 and more than 50% by 2040, mainly achieved in the Waste and Production of Wood and Residential Coal sectors ;
- A significant reduction in emissions of other air pollutants such as: – particulate matters, up to 59% reduction by 2030 and 82% by 2040; – nitrogen oxides (NOx), up to 43% reduction by 2030 and 56% by 2040; – organic carbon (OC), up to 59% reduction by 2030 and 83% by 2040. Thus, by targeting major sources of SLCP emissions, emissions of other pollutants such as fine particulate matter, nitrogen oxides (NOX) and organic carbon (OC) are also substantially reduced.
This would also allow, in addition:
- Up to 52% reduction in PM 2.5 concentration related to national emissions by 2030 and 71% by 2040;
- Up to 11% reduction (1,100 people) in premature deaths associated with PM2.5 exposure by 2030 and more than 17% (2,200 people) by 2040.
The national SLCP reduction plan also provides a basis for the analysis of «low-carbon» trajectories with a view to strengthening Côte d’Ivoire’s Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC). This integrated approach provides a new analytical framework to better understand the development benefits of reducing climate pollutants. It identifies policies, measures and their effects on emissions and other benefits, such as those on health. The 16 measures contained in this plan thus allow a reduction of about 20% in GHG emissions by 2030, which represents more than half of Côte d’Ivoire’s efforts to achieve the ambition of its first NDC. This therefore underlines the need to take into account all climate gases and pollutants, whether short- or long-term in the atmosphere, in order to achieve the climate objectives.